Education
DOI: 10.21070/acopen.v1i2.217

How to put into practice the Integration Methods


English teacher categorized the first on SES(State Education Standards)
Uzbekistan
integration subject matter language proficiency routine modify collaborate declare evolve multilevel peer directive business-thinking proverb embedding feedback

Abstract

Till graduating bachelor's degree at University it is admittable fact that most graduators essentially practice only on receiving specific knowledge, resulted that the lack of Utilisation of educational intelligence that is way it is purposed to lead the fresh bachelors of pedagogical units of High Education getting on how to deliver their learners obtained substances. It is directed that analyzing of Integration that promotable comprehensive Methodology on Teaching English language. Furthermore, the strategies of the integrating skills and the techniques about how to present knowledge during the procedure of lesson at GES (general education schools). It is brilliant brief instruction not only for the new teachers who just starting working with learners but also for the experienced teachers.

Introduction

As estimated by State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics and UNESCO institute for Statistics (2015-2016) the student –teacher ratio was basically recognized the number of student per teacher was 12.6 in general education of schools(GES) of the Republic of Uzbekistan while the student-teacher ratio in South Korea was gained 35.13 the number of student per teacher was satisfactory in GES of the South Korea. Hence it is affordable to say the numerous point of subjective recourses of sustainable teaching for high effective productivity has already successfully achieved sufficient position in the Base of Construction of People Education Department of the Republic Uzbekistan.

By the way it can be bound time obviously to direct the thorough concentration to improve modified proficiency of teaching process. In the 2016-2017 school year there were 4.825.000 students enrolled in 9719 GES ,of which 2.252.900 were enrolled in 6.015 GES in rural areas. (State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics and UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2015-2016)). Therefore, it was meant that there were 4.825.000 task, personally there were 4.825.000 roles in class duties should be undertaken.

Theoritical background

As established appropriate to the Physical and intellectual capability of the pupils there were only 45 minutes to explain specific topic for the teaching staff of schools. Subsequently every educator though who is thoroughly skilled will come across broadly difficulties on duration of lesson time particularly on full-facted themes. So then the bachelors have only little 45 minutes there have to be needful for impressive effectual Methodology purposed to utilization

By the searching for more productive methods on Teaching English Language(TEL) I favorably prefer the Methodology of Integration which underachieved all kind of methods that addressed to improve listening skills after analyzed Reading part with commanded Vocabulary, upholding on the same topic activities move on Writing and Speaking practice about the same content in one lesson. On TEL the Methodology of integration is identically considered beneficial solution whereas Complex English entirely included distinctive 6 parts of language that demanded especially from the teachers of Educating Process. The associating of several skills at the same lesson acquaintance dramatically develop knowledge of second language under student-centered learners while the convenient comprehension attracted even low assimilated pupils providing broad acquaintance to learning process. By following the aspects of Integration Complex different-degreed class are able to obtain their own position in second language sphere for themselves more constant securely and easier as their academic study can conclude extensively, it would be Reading approach or Listening, Writing either Speaking.

Main part

Following it is investigated some Integration factors which produce academic integrating environment during lessons.

Schooling process undeniably dependent on the character of tutoring group. Maybe you are well-skilled to deliver information more comprehensively or you are own well-educated on any sort of issue according to your speciality but anyway the character of class can be serious dilemma you have to conciliate. So first of all educator need to motivate the whole audience to accompany with him and each other to wake up their desire to achieve high-levelled degree on second language lead them attending activities.

Nowadays Globalization over the world demands us to cover with high-technological applications to keep pace with modernizing international education system. Moreover Multiple media contents leisurely appeal ambiguous and undisciplined pupils. Furthermore, most significant methods insist completely these equipments.

Whilst making pupils study parting divisions not only knowledgeable, wide-educated person but also powerful behaviors like leadership, self-confidence, good-collaborating or sociable manners. Most important thing you give just any task to dividing groups and their own solve how to do it or what to do. Parenthetically, you bring up innovative empowered leaders in every group and at the same time creative communicators learner-centered environment acceptably navigates to understand in more qualifying way, reasoned that on learner-centered environment is available to exist more various opinions of the same topic caused that every member of group has own view on catching information as on teacher-centered environment there might be only teacher’s dominant outlook.

I am going to explain specifically step by step every technique. Following instructions demonstrate several strategies and techniques in order to accommodate particularly the Integration Methodology while integrating skills of language.

Concordance with class’ character

How to export curricular matter is the teacher’s duty. At the beginning it is recommended to indicate the main part of passage then choose adequate variant that mannered to class in shown way. Adequate variant should illustrate the main content of theme. So teachers can adopt content of general textbook to make more suitable for the language proficiency.

Declare your students what to do

At the beginning of every task you should say what you expect from this work because it is important to declare lesson’s objectives and orders of activities. It can be helpful not only to get outlined facts current lesson but also pupils(PP) will be managed to foresee how to learn , what to learn, that is why it is significant point of preparing audience for integrating lesson.

Your assessment should be clear for writing

Teacher should write some complicated words on the boardin case there are low-levelled learners on the Literacy or Pronunciation of the language. Writing the words on the board to show now spell it is also to serve to improve Vocabulary balance.

Catch the routine of activities

Routine of activities helps students be ready for next what will happen, like the sorts of exercises, procedures of explaining, if you keep the routine of practicing you just have to explain the first activity fully that is all, consequently the next activities need not to be expressed broadly, you can just say the difference between prior and next activities. Learners their own continue doing tasks of the subject matter. Here also we can be achievable to economize time of lesson.

Order tasks to do and instruct one by one

First of all mentor should introduce the steps of doing activities then require learners to begin practice that it is able to be eventually successful to control and give instructions in process of doing. From my experience I can inform students mostly want to distinguish synonyms in using logical ways. Thereby, I have to attend their project, not only onlooker like dictatorial supervisor.

Modify tasks in agreeable way

As mostly admitted every field own different typed parts, similar to every audience obtain individual characteristics depending dominant subjects. That is way subject teacher has to reproduce curricular context according to learners and subject matter. In this procedure using multiple videos, tapes can be ideal supporter to reduce teacher’s distraction.

While modify, stand on the salient summation

When independently adapting the substance of daily lesson, the main text should be kept without lessening. Interleaved information must not serve as overloading data or confusing factor but involve more stable the learners’ concentration, enlighten comprehensively curricula.

Collaborate with partners

Colleagues absolutely have great chance which they can be certain advisor to each other, advisor at the working time is considered as most profitable teacher within every department of Labor world. So then collaborating with your partner is needed valuable sources for self-evaluation as your partner who can be real corrector. Companions might be able to investigate following activities to evaluate themselves.

  1. Organizing demo lessons
  2. Figure out puzzles on mathematics or science
  3. Work on projects
  4. Preparing special parties
  5. Scientific debates conference, etc.

Re-work on specific materials

Following the content teacher the language teacher also re-analyze the materialistic problem in case learners can be disturbed to understand comprehensively the over-complexity of the passages the reason why unnecessary details. Entirely teachers should never ignore the specific object of content and all actions should have been daily part of syllabus served to clarify.

Declare key words

Each lesson must conclude its own key words without missing, and further key words should be explained in advance, at the beginning of lesson so that by the while beforehand discussing new words can be valuable assistance to achieve comprehensive conception. Though key words are partly suggested as basic elements of the vehicular substance they should be on average quantity. Presenting regularly a little new words is more provable sufficient than introducing large amount of brand vocabulary intermittently.

Present text at suitable forms

As many tutor realize, some topics are not available to present as video material or tape recording either some materials demand to be explained real living environment, that is why teacher should manage to express sources in proper shapes.

Accommodating classroom activeness

It is influentially considered students’ activeness either interaction and substantially participation principally constructed by the Integration of language skills.

Evolve a learner-centered technique

While activities are processed it should be needed to provide to have students involved presenting materials and acquire the language. On this spot responsibility of teaching is shared by both teacher and students. Learners are assumed more accountable for educating procedure. At this type of curriculum teachers can be functioned as facilitator.

  1. Adopt teacher’s speech by eliminating
  2. Have students researched on theme (by proclaiming next lesson’s syllabus in advance)
  3. Centralize the problem of subject matter not classroom discipline
  4. Able to perform different types of presenting current topic, manage to gain it previously

Having basically suppositious thinking increased

These technique encourages learners’ reasoning ability, such as predicting, analyzing, justifying, inferencing, hypothesizing. It is required just to look through text and answered the questions like ‘What do you think what about it is?’, ‘Why are you supposing that?’, ‘Let us justify, our statements, what details do you have?’ etc. Here can be obtain chance to form critical thinking sustainably.

Mistakes lead to the acquisition of information

While learning people work on receiving second language, it is natural to do mistakes, it means your learners are trying to understand the information, here using second language has already began on pupils who installing their voice in second language. Yet the next thing should be to do is accurate mildly without laughing or shouting at. You need to explain grammatical aspect and require to correct their own mistakes. By representing their responses they can improve their self-evaluation. Pupils are manageable to remember their own sentences.

Working with multilevel groups

Every mentors constantly come across groups with various typed learners, by proficiency / ability levels. Following we observe different strategies that manageable to use as soon as situations appear.

Benefit of collaborative working

It is acceptable to utilize this technique in the class which have higher anxiety when students must present alone some task in front of mates or teacher. Working in group or with pair have pupils performed activities in free and more productive way. Advantage of this strategies is that you can have prepared works more enriched wide diversity than individually made presentation. As your pupils will get ready for socialization while process. In order to get this strategies’ achievement, it is demanded that the agreeable size for each groups reached from 2 to 6 students, and also every group-member should provide any task, there should not be pupil who has no task or participating. However students own should point how contribute to the project respectedly, afterwards students are invited to perform according to their wish what and how to do it.

Use peer directive materials

To my personal experience working in peers is so beneficial during specially reading tasks. Following divisions that peers should conduce the whole text can be browsed in decent time way. Here it is confirmable insisted to give new expressions of vocabulary at the highest beginning in order not to scare pupils and not decrease their desire of learning. During your operating if you guide their desire of learning smoothly, mildly without parts which clearly pupils of this class are unable to manage it.

Contain writing tasks

As considered writing task is highly assumed most effective way of learning in case beforehand it is needful practiced on the same topic in some styles. According to the integration of learning English it would be suitable widely pre-writing activities like watching film or analyzing text as reading lead to be manageable for writing. Of course till writing key points of vocabulary and full-comprehension should be observed to work easily on writing.

Use project lesson

This type of lessons direct learners to recognize the main focus of the theme through facilitating by teacher. According to Larmer and Mergendoller(2015) original eight essential elements of ‘Project based learning’ (PBL) is considered the ‘Gold standard’ of PBL by the Buck Institute for Education(BIE).

  1. Key knowledge, Understanding and Success Skills (critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration and self-management)
  2. Challenging Problems or Questions (debatable knowledge need to solve in group)
  3. Sustained Inquire (involve from question to question, by developing own answers)
  4. Authenticity (real world processes, tools and quality standards to make real impact)
  5. Student voice and choice (allow students to make choices)
  6. Reflection (indicate what and how learn)
  7. Critique and revision(to give and receive feedback)
  8. Public product (present product to people)

Distinctive research working

During these types of lessons learners investigate more precisely the current topic among other parts of subjects. Not only PBL, practice-based lesson, testing-built lesson or researching-designed lessons are also effective style of promptly learning.

Figure 1. Material for PBL

Figure 1.

Avoid text materials

As mentioned above, it can be comprehensive whether detailed information present tables, illustrations, pictures, maps, schemas, structures, statistic charts, videos, audios, presentations and others.(except Reading tasks)

Figure 2 . Pictures of lesson vocabulary for beginners

Figure 2.

Deal with considerable substance by devisions

Through one’s experience it could be obliged to work with much sizeable subject curricula or sizeable audience for one lesson time, at that time it has to be available to cope with situation by apportioning contemporary mass. While you subdivide pupils into groups and you can be able to receive selected solutions from groups among several pupils after they firmly analyzed the topic according to your faciliating.

Contain video or audio materials

Though paper materials are always accepted most significant stuff, video or audio materials are accomplishing more involving technique whilst teaching at GES. By these forms learners can accessibly take live informational balance especially at video films. They will achieve several types of matter that communicated words, cultural background knowledge, own moral virtue.in the manner of the demands of the Integration of Teaching English firstly it should be prepared curricular atmosphere by working on vocabulary following reading divisions on the same substance, leading to video and audio tapes.Next blessing is tenderly to operate students in devoted mood for the current matter. Here teaching platform might be conclude different sort of tapes like to listen to a poem, a song, a short story or supportive debates.

Onward explaining share student experience

Receive students’ educational or socio-cultural background at the time you are explaining the cases of subject matter. The benefits of this method are to be usable to enrich real-life experience and at the same time you will manage to attract devotedly pupils to your lesson.

‘BACKGROUND – ACQUIRED’ (BA) knowledge cards

At the beginning of procedure it should be distributed ‘BA’ sheets to pupils then ‘BACKGROUND’ part can be fulfilled with knowledge already gained. The eve part of lesson ending they are able to complete the ‘ACQUIRED’ part with knowledge brandly gained.

At the same time different homework

In most case of the mixed shaped groups teachers suffer from pupils who do not prepare given homework assignments. Here I am able to say that from my first-hand experience, it would be highly acceptible to offer several kinds of study that for instance hometask for visuals/kinaesthetic/aurals or you can give assignment already marked. If learners prepare activity marked ‘4’ they will get 4 mark or 5 mark according their own chosen home-assignment.

  1. Writing report about your momentous business
  2. Make portfolio about your thoughtful business
  3. Prepare a speech about your earnest business

Pupils can do what they like among versions.

Handle ardeous tasks in parts

While you come across quiet ardeous task to make learners to assign, you realise that the task is unable to give individually or even as group work . in this circumstance you have to disunite that task own to be able to to tackle learners manage their parts and share with other groups about how they propose solution and by it they teach each other.

Use real live attempts

No sooner every learner begin to absorbe grasp of the language they feel that they need to establish their own voice beyond second language. Actually learners insist themselves by live attempts what shown by themselves that can be:

  1. Dialogue performed in class
  2. Questionnaries with mates as a roles of life
  3. Interviews from their close people
  4. Performances they directed
  5. Reciting poem
  6. Composing song (especially own writing)
  7. Describing pictures (it would certainly be manageable if pupils own draw them)
  8. Identifying and proving objects (person, place, thing) among species
  9. Transferring information orally from listening, reading, watching materials
  10. Contests of tongue twisters/poems/proverbs/word jumbles/jokes/anecdotes among class
  11. Play games in English

Use background knowledge to attract pupils

Psychologically proved that human brain is acceptable to receive message which signalled that like ‘it is familiar under conscious material which easy to understand’. So we should use this humans’ brain character. First of all, we should make pupils realise that the current theme is not ‘brand newcomer’ to you, you already know it, your brain can admit it and utilise it’. But how? By their background knowledge, teacher should find out something related to today’s curricula among pupils’ background knowledge.

Proper preparation provide successful exercises

Logically every writing activity possesses their own preparation which provide how successfully to be done, pre-writing activities. Users of methods can periodically choose among brainstorming, semantic webbing, planning paragraphs, or outlining to generate a large number of ideas quickly. You can get learners enlight their extensive ideas by two methods. That would be firstly to divide the whole complex theme into subissues then express the subissues one by one till achieve the whole issue like I choose to write this article. Secondly that would be typical to the issue by the grounds of the substances, for instance, psychologically what it is, economically, scientificly, politicly, historicly, socially.

Figure 3 . Outlining of essay: ‘gender equality’

Figure 3.

Re-decorate your lesson plan in thonic way

Full-fill frequently with music and songs lesson by lesson soothing attractive music is the best way to involve pupils for motivation and further well-assisted way on English pronunciation and intonation exemplar. Moreover you can work widely on topic activities by lyrics of songs.

  1. Writing catching words (how many, how true spelling)
  2. Putting in the place missing words
  3. Putting pictures in order according to song
  4. Matching definitions and song’s words
  5. Answering questions
  6. Giving title
  7. Explaining what about the song is
  8. Singing song in chorus/individually

Get Reading tasks formed as pleasurable activity

As ‘If people obtain ‘will’ they manage to cope with any dillemma’, capability to wake up pupils’ wish to reading is real motivation to lead brilliant vocabulary and retelling it is excellent exercise for speaking only for it we need provide per pupil with interesting literature which worthwhileto purchase their time. This task also should be briefly and short like others but regularly without breaks.

Methods for motivation

It is so significant for expected result to put the activity in a correct way which firstly from receiving group activity that could be vocabulary or listening, reading; afterwhile producing group activity that would be writing, speaking. In this point teacher should not forget that every lesson must conclude improving critical thinking, giving feedback in suitable way consistent with pupils and class environment.

Motivational embedding

To assist students memorize key phenomenon, theories, it is recommended that faciliators should set up re-observation lessons like quizzes, revisions, home assignments afterwhile a period of some weeks or one-two months. Results can be more productive if re-observation is set up after more periodic time. During re-observing part of lesson it is not necessary to investigate the whole subject matter here we can remember just key concepts about topic depending on time. We should not forget about lesson time is only 45 minutes that we have to review allone or two sections in 45minutes. In that way it is convenient to use quizzes or tests. Quizzing is not only just suitable for consolidating last lessons, but also it is helpful for pre-questions activities to involve learners’ concentration.

Prevent reputation word style

Nowadays in the official business world it is demanded on every breath to utilise graphs to express topic more clearly and comprehensive. It means, modern faciliators should produce the proficients who skillful at working graphic organisers with business-thinking. Furthermore, it is acquiring and accustoming graphics is extremely appropriate to explain subject matter is comprehensive/ cognitive manner.

  1. Bar chart is a graph in the form of boxes different heights, with each box representing a different value or category of data and the heights representing frequencies.
  2. Flow chart is a schematic representation of how the different stages in a process are interconnected.
  3. Line graph is a graph in which a series of associated straight lines connect points, each of which represents the value of a particular variable.
  4. Pie chart is a pictorial graph in the shape of a circle with segments representing related proportions.
  5. Mapping is a drawing of an area showing some kind of special feature, for example the type of rocks, weather, populations.
  6. Diagram is a simple drawing or plan that shows exactly where something is , what it looks like, how it works.
  7. Table is a list of numbers, facts or information arranged in rows across and down a page
  8. Graphs is a diagram displaying data ; in particular one showing the relationship between two or more quantities, measurements or indicative numbers that may or may not have a specific mathematical formula relating them to each other.
  9. Timeline is a graphical representation of achronological sequence of events (past or future), a chronology.

Figure 4. Figure 4 Pyramid chart Figure 5. Diagram ‘Verb in English’

Figure 4.

Present proverbs and quotes

It is highly important to attract pupils by performing interesting resources which available provide forming confident, able-mannered young generation. One of the wide-balanced resources is sustainedly to present proverbs or quotes which fullfilled with moral notion at the same time sometimes they can support to explain the large quantity of opinion. Moreover faciliators might use them as a base of speaking task. For example, it is able to require to define following Chinese Proverb.

I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.

Utilization of role plays and drama

Another more beneficial way of motivating to lessons is the utilization of role plays and drama which make pupils self-evaluate establishing their own voice on second language by live dramaticly influenced manner. At the same time they listen each other and react to listened stuffs. By reacting they produce their own answers and illusions. Instead of translating and making up sentences individually. Doing dramas or role plays is so significant process.

Little by little till writing

To recognise young learners writing task types firstly matching tasks or completing paragraphs, putting in order the parts of writing. After preparing your learners they are able to require to write small seperatedly parts. For example,

  1. Matching the beginnings and the endings
  2. Analyzing according to topic sentences, evaluation, justifications, descriptions, explanations, set the scene and others
  3. Re-writing in informal or formal way
  4. Writing summary for performed essay
  5. Writing introduction for performed essay
  6. Writing essay to shown framework

Choose suitable topic for the quatation ‘You are either part of solution or you are part of the problem’

  1. Celebrities should be allowed to keep their private lives private, without th einvasion of the media.
  2. One language spoken worldwide would lead to better international relations.
  3. Teenagers have an important contribution to construct society

Embedding

Even though it is strange statement ‘Embedding of prior knowledge is more important than the solid other basic part of lesson which would be emerging or evolving either excelling. It might be presumed as some boring activity. But teachers can utilize some interleaving details to avoid annoying reputation. Repeat the same balance of knowledge but in different method. While pupils gained the brand knowledge by listening or matching or completing tasks, you can get them made up sentence or stories, briefly it is acceptable, other shape of activities than before already done to embed the background knowledge to avoid being bored.

Feedback

Feedback fundamentally served as primary groundwork for self-evaluation which is so valuable in Education. This statement should be unforgettable rule of teacher who wants to obtain worthy productivity of own learners. Effective and regularly use of feedback in the classroom formulated professional learning which can be self-study or collaborative study either competitive study and also cooperative study. As already known Feedback can commonly be teacher feedback, peer feedback and self-assessment. Here the most rangeable one is self-assessment.

Sample of lesson plan

Key theme: Marketing economy

Topic: What is marketing?

Group: Mixed-levelled

Objectives: to improve learner’s awareness of advertising and marketing; academic words related to economy; raise awareness business world.

Materials: Learner-made video questions, teacher-made cards, posters for group work

Content: Recognise Marketing parts, identify steps of business plan

Receiving home assignments: Since class consists of mixed-levelled learners faciliator have to give several types of hometask based on the same matter at the same time

  1. Acquiring questionnaire which being used while arranging home activities
  2. Making video-questions in essence own business plan
  3. Preparing presentations in substances of own business plan
  4. Completing sheets which enlightening approximately a kind of business plan

Language:

Receiving skills: Retell teacher-made questionnaire about how enlight business plan, listening video-questions of pupils own willing business work and find out which, what, how is their task, to present their own presentation about business stuffs.

Producing skills: Complete the cards which analyzes marketing habits with today’s new vocabulary, filling the table with Family words of new vocabulary, analyzing verbs in accordance linking verb functions, writing report using brand-learning knowledge.

Thinking skills: Creativity, social-communication, critical thinking

Key vocabulary: consumer, sale, purchase, storage, diagram, packaging.

References

  1. Deborah J. Short. (1991) Integration language and content instruction: strategies and techniques. NCBE Program Information Guide Series, Number 7, Fall 1991. Retrieved from www.ncela.gwu.edu
  2. Monica M. Catramado (August,2004) Integrating the six skills in every ESL/EFL Class
  3. Harold Pashler (Chair), Patrica M. Bain, Brain A. Bottle, Arthur Greasser, Kenneth Koedinger, Mark McDaniel, Janet Metcalfe. Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student learning. National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, September, 2007 Retrieved from www.ncer.ed.gov.
  4. The Department of Education and Training, 2 Treasure Place, East Melbourne, Victoria,3002. High Impact Teaching Strategies. The Department of Education and Training Melbourne June,2017. Retrieved from www.aitsl.edu.au
  5. Larmer and Mergendeller, J.R.(2015b) Why we changed our model of the ‘8 essential elements of PBL’. Buck Institute for Education. Retrieved from www.bie.org