The article highlights the role of innovative thinking in organizing research activities. Philosophical analysis of organizational, social, financial and economic aspects of the organization of innovative activity. Priorities of innovation activity in Uzbekistan and main trends in it were revealed. In addition, a number of proposals and recommendations on innovative activities have been developed
One of the features of an innovative society is the process of formation and development of innovative activity in society. Innovation is a creative activity aimed at creating innovation in society and applying its significant results, systematically disseminating innovations and networking, to improve efficiency by bringing innovations into the existing system. Through these activities, young people form new relationships in the innovation community, and they themselves become more and more active in the process of such relationships. Innovation leads to the creation of specific innovations in any field, which improves the network.
As the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoev noted that: “Science is the basis of development, neither state nor society has a future that does not rely on modern science and innovative ideas. Only at the expense of science and education, intellectual potential, and well-educated staff will we be able to bring Uzbekistan to a new level of development ”.
The diffusion of innovations in society requires young people to understand their meaning and content, to make choices about innovation and to integrate them into social life.
There are different philosophical views and scientific approaches to the directions of innovation, and the philosopher A.Begmatov describes innovation activity as follows: The term “innovation activity” refers to the provision of services for the creation of new improved products, a new technological process. Specific features of innovative activity are:
- new product development activities;
- promotion of new original ideas as a finished product;
- improving new original ideas and etc [2, p.3].
The scientist here focuses on this aspect of the person’s activity, in which the individual is critical of the current social situation and is able to innovate in the social process through the implementation of the research results into practice.
Economist T.Teshabaev, who analyzes innovation in higher education, analyzes innovation activity as a unique cycle: “One of the key features of innovation is innovation. The innovation cycle is the period from the creation of new ideas in science to their implementation. Economists distinguish between the innovation cycle (starting from the formation of a new scientific idea to its specific design and finally being introduced into production and testing) and the viability of innovation (from the implementation of the innovation to its moral obsolescence)” [3, p.27]. At the core of innovative activity is the fundamental secular knowledge. The beginning of direct innovation is related to the emergence of a scientifically sound idea. The idea of improving the efficiency of the existing system is that as innovation moves from the proposed level of innovation to the status of innovation, it can be viewed as a cycle, with a particular effect on the organization of research in higher education. In particular, it is important to ensure that government and business grants are allocated within the innovation cycle.
The Russian philosopher G. Goldstein approaches the question of innovative activity of the person: “Innovation activity is multifaceted, which includes creation of technological, organizational and social innovations. In the course of such activities, a new development model will be created, aimed at the effective use of social and natural resources. The main purpose of this process is to improve the quality of life of the population ”[4, p.19]. This definition emphasizes the diversity of innovative activities and the purpose of which is to increase economic efficiency. The result of innovative activity is new or additional competitive goods (services), social services of new quality. Innovation activities will focus on the creation of its constituents, their assimilation and distribution by consumers, and their effective use. At the same time, it is advisable to emphasize the commercialization of the innovative person’s activities and the resulting new quality results.
Widespread introduction of innovation is linked to the development of an active subjective factor. It is based on the active attitude of the individual to the socio-economic processes taking place in the society. The subjective factor is based on the harmonious attitude of society to the acceptance, selection and implementation of innovations in society, which necessitates the implementation of an innovative approach to innovation.
Philosophers admit that innovative activity is based on a new scientific approach, initiative and creativity. Such effective activity of an innovative person promotes the formation of an active life attitude towards democratic reforms, modernization and innovation development in the society. New approaches to community development bring new methods and technologies to social and economic processes. “The main task of innovative activity is to create new methods, techniques, technologies, opportunities that will allow the social system to move to a new level of development aimed at positive change” [5, p.148-149].
The emergence of a complex of innovations in the activity of an innovative person and the formation of an attitude to their development is based on the following:
- Foreseeing the result of purposeful activity and the need for innovation;
- Orientation to overcome potential social barriers;
- Ability to adapt to changing circumstances;
- Ability to act in an emergency;
- Persistence, risk that has not yet reached the level of aggression;
- Efficiency-oriented and not afraid of failure;
- Creativity and social orientation [6, p.74].
An innovative person may face many social barriers and conflicts in his or her work. Because the intended news may not conform to the rules and regulations of the society, it may not be as good as the traditional culture and social environment. Overcoming them will require great effort and sometimes courage from an innovative person. In community-based societies with strong national traditions, the formation, development and progress of innovation is difficult and slow unless it is mobilized for potential development. It is worth noting that the process of striving for national self-consciousness should not be opposed to progressive innovation.
The innovation of new products or social services is the result of innovation, the essence of the subjects being innovative and creative in the activity of the person, the ability to foresee, focus on innovations that lead to positive results; At the same time, to achieve high efficiency through the introduction of new innovative ideas and their implementation into social life, social changes and are reflected in the adoption of a new resolution.
In the process of innovation, an individual must be able to use his or her intellectual potential. The effective activity of the individual is achieved through the development of socio-historical forms and the organization and development of their activities. The organization of such social activity is carried out through the self-mobilization of the individual according to the activity of others.
The subject of any innovation in society is a person who is active, creative and creative. Some philosophers argue that innovativeness is a key feature of an individual’s personality, which in turn generates novel social relationships. And the innovation-driven social environment allows for a person with a new outlook. After all, “An innovative person is a person who creates modernity that can have a positive impact on social progress” [7, p.51].
The wide spread of innovation in the society, the formation of the innovative personality, contribute to the formation of an innovative society. Due to the interconnectedness of the social networks, an innovative society can be established only if the innovation activities are widely distributed.
The introduction of innovation into existing systems in society and managing the process of its implementation requires an effective, rational, scientific solution to the important issue directly related to the development, proper use, organization and direction of human resources and potential. Subjective factors determine the course of innovation development, its pace and direction. The person is the object and subject of this process. In this regard, it should be noted that the implementation of measures aimed at accelerating the process of innovation by the state authorities increases the interest of the community members, especially the youth, who are the most advanced part of society.
The basis of innovative activity is human intellectual potential, human resources, intellectual potential, and philosopher scientists consider this fact as human capital. Based on this approach, a number of Western philosophers developed the theory of human capital. “The theory of human capital”, with the rise of the scientific and technological revolution in the West in the 1950s and 1960s, was based on anti-Taylorism in the in the 1920s, and many philosophers began to deal with that theory. This theory has been put forward by the works of American scientists G. Becker, B. Weisbrod, D. Miners, G. Hansen, and T.Schultz. Proponents of the new scientific theory have begun to pay special attention to the role of vocational training, science and education in the formation of a modern workforce, and to prove that investment in these areas will greatly benefit in the future . Investments in the system of continuous education will change the social consciousness of the young people in the future and determine the pace of social development. In the new phase of democratic reforms, the emphasis on pre-school education in Uzbekistan will further enhance human capital. The proposals of the Deputy Minister of Innovation Development Shermatov to solve this problem are noteworthy. According to the Deputy Minister, the share of research funding in GDP is only 0.2%, which is 11 times lower than the world average, and 22 times less than the Republic of Korea. In 2014, GDP in Korea will reach 1411 billion. Given that this amount is $ 60 billion, the science budget is $ 60 billion dollars. This is 485 times higher than the science budget in Uzbekistan. According to Shermatov, to solve this problem it is necessary to do the following: When determining what percentage of investment is appropriate, it would be appropriate if our economists were to take into account the interest rates in the other developed countries, which are often cited as good examples. For example, if we allocate 4.28% of GDP to science, as in Korea, it is 2.7 billion. would be worth $9. Another mechanism for supporting innovative activities would be to independently dispose of higher education institutions and research institutes, and to introduce the practice of approving annual cost estimates in the process of open discussion in Councils.
Correct solution of problems facing society is closely connected with human capital, which in our country has been recognized as a priority of state policy. As the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoev noted that: “In developed countries, much attention is paid to investing in the full cycle of education, that is, raising the child from 3 to 22 years. This investment will bring about 15-17 times the profit to society. In our case, this figure is only 4 times.
Therefore, we must strengthen our focus on human capital and make every effort to do so”. Such innovative approaches are the basis for development, and the prospects and results of the formation of innovative consciousness in young people largely depend on human capital.
The development of personality innovation has a positive impact on the formation of an innovative society. Uzbekistan is undergoing reforms aimed at institutional solution of this issue. In particular, the Ministry of Innovation Development, Innovation Funds and newly established subdivisions in higher education institutions serve to achieve these goals.
Creative creativity, that is, creative approach to the process, is seen as an important condition for the innovation of any person. It is important to note that innovation is not limited to the economy, technology and technology. Innovation and innovation cover all areas of society. It also focuses on the effectiveness of the innovation of the individual, applied in civil society institutions, politics, education, healthcare, management, organization, culture, lifestyle and others [10, p.123].
Regardless of the area in which innovation works, innovation is justified if it serves to improve the social life of the community and its members and to improve the quality of life. “In the development of the country, the priority should not be the production and investment factors, but the accelerated innovation in the scientific and high-tech sectors of the economy that drive the national economy. Investment and production factors are not the goal of innovation but merely a tool ”[11, p.20].
Any innovation process is aimed at achieving high efficiency in this area. The process and the positive effects of this process are the subjects’ desire to find and implement innovations, the ability of leaders to organize teamwork on an innovative basis, to offer innovative ideas, to understand and adopt advanced ideas, to young people’s innovative thinking and innovative thinking. to have and to carry out innovative activity based on it. From this point of view, the level of intellectual potential of the subject is significant and its implementation in social life contributes to the development of society and, ultimately, the development of a democratic society.
Also, a person may not always be able to lead because his innovation is different from the normal, everyday activities of others. Such social activities require certain risks and are subject to unexpected conflicts. This is because societies do not always accept such innovation. In the course of innovation activities, subjects may deviate from existing stereotypes and skills in society, daily customs and traditions, and may face various social conflicts and contradictions. In particular, there are some contradictions between national values and modern values. In order to solve this problem, existing systems in the society need to be approached, taking into account their development conditions, mentality and peculiarities.
Some aspects of the process of innovation creation and its implementation in social life have been studied by philosophers. It should be noted that it is difficult for one person to bring the news to the social systems alone. From this, researchers consider the activity of innovation groups or small creative groups, which play an important role in the dissemination and development of innovation. In their view, innovation is first distributed by small “creative groups”. In this regard, the content of the innovation and creative group theory by the American scientist, professor of management school and director of the Institute for Economic Welfare at the University of Toronto, philosopher R. Florida deserves special attention. Florida calls the creators of innovation “creative class” or “creative group”. The philosopher focuses more on the role of subjects who create and disseminate innovation in research.
A specific “creative group” is the core of creative approaches and innovative community development entities, a team of highly qualified professionals who respond to modern needs, challenges, have high intellectual potential, and lead others by organizing their activities on an innovative basis. . Creative group theory is known as the “Three T” (technology, talent, tolerance), and these social characteristics characterize the activities of creative and creative classes (groups). The social nature of the groups is determined by their knowledge of new technologies, their ability to be talented and tolerant. The philosopher recognizes that this social group plays an important role in the development of society and describes such a class as a group of people who can change the future. The core of this group is the core of creativity, which includes professionals from the fields of science, technology, architecture, design, education and art.
In some cases, traditional values that are widely accepted in society and which have been recognized by young people, are to some extent impeded by innovation in socio-economic processes and the emergence of a creative spirit. As the system of long-standing national values is changing, it is difficult to come up with innovative innovations. Accordingly, the self-identification of the creative classes is not an immediate problem. Because of the complexity of the solution to this social problem, there is a conflict between traditional values. Now there is a need for creative collaboration between innovation and the creative teams to put their social plans into practice. The creation of such a partnership would create a creative problem. The existence of a creative environment is crucial, which facilitates the rapid diffusion of innovation and is an essential element of the innovation system.
It is well known that cities play a major role in the development of innovation in the world as scientific centers. In particular, the Silicon Valley, comprised of Palo Alto, Sanniveil, Maunten-Wu, Cupertino and Santa Clara in the United States, Causeway in Japan, Lund in Sweden, and Basel in Switzerland. In Tashkent there are the leading universities and most research institutions of the country, and there are prospects for the creation of large scientific and innovation centers through the directing of their potential to the development of the real sector of the economy.
Economic growth is directly linked to universities and the system of continuous education, which contributes to the rapid growth of the creative economy and competitiveness. In this regard, the philosopher emphasizes the importance of creative centers (universities):
a) Universities are leading hi-tech centers;
b) Universities unite young talents to promote innovative ideas;
c) Universities create a creative environment for openness and tolerance in academic activities, combining a creative class of youth and forming an innovative mind [12, p.32-33].
Universities contribute to improving the quality and quality of life in a democratic society. As their organizational activities are not comprehensive, creative social partnership opportunities are needed. Higher education institutions should be able to effectively mobilize intellectual property in the context of existing social partnerships to convert them into economic resources. The creative environment is a common strategic objective of supporting human resources, especially creative youth.
While creative groups are a small group of community members, the importance of this concept must be taken into account when it comes to bringing together talented, independent, initiative, and intellectual individuals with strong intellectual potential. Such individuals, in turn, play an important role in the creation of creative teams that combine creative approaches, create a creative environment in the community, and accelerate innovation. This fact will have a positive impact on the process of modernization in society.
In the new phase of democratic development, a particular emphasis is placed on the role and role of universities in shaping innovation consciousness. Branches of the leading higher educational institutions of foreign countries have been operating in Uzbekistan for the last two years. Developed new, effective procedures for admission. Now the implementation of the following will give impetus to the development of innovative activities:
- Introduction of market-based methods of meeting the aspiration to enter higher educational institutions on the basis of the laws of market economy;
- Avoid the strict centralization of higher education institutions;
- To abandon ineffective methods of planning university activities and to introduce modern management.
Implementation of the above measures will allow effective introduction of market economy relations in the activity of higher education institutions and will become a real innovation space for universities.