DOI: 10.21070/icecrs2020460

An Analysis of English Borrowing Words in Indonesian Advertisement “Gatsby Styling Pomade”

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Borrowing Word Loanword Loan Shift Advertisement Semantic


This research aims to identify and classify the types of borrowing word in Indonesian advertisement of Gatsby Styling Pomade. Qualitative method is used to analyze and identify the data which consists of borrowing words. The result of this study shows that two types of borrowing word are discovered encompassing loanword and loan shift. There are six words which are discovered as part of borrowing word in this study. Therefore, the most dominant type of borrowing word in this study are both loanword and loan shift.


Language can be interpreted as an important part in human life. It also is a form of a written or oral symbol. People are able to communicate with each other using language that they use and the use of language also to express through and ideas [1]. Moreover, Jendra [2] said that language is the way of communication. In communicating, people usually use borrowing a language from other language. For example, Indonesian people who meet Japanese people usually borrow English language because it is an International language that will make them understand each other what is talking about. Moreover, there are two ways that can be use in borrowing words. The first way is complete borrowing. It is the loanword that used in its original form of spelling and pronunciation. The second way is incomplete borrowing. It means that the loanword is changed not only in pronunciation and spelling but it also changes in affixation.

The form of language contact can be explained by the situation when a bilingual borrows a foreign language to communicate or write something. In addition, this situation can be said as a borrowing word. It is also usually called as loanword. Jendra [2] said that borrowing words from different or other language is one of the most general processes of forming and adding new words. In sociolinguistics, borrowing word is a phenomenon that takes place in a society by mixing the different languages. One of the reasons of this phenomenon is because it is the alternative vocabularies in the native language [1].

Sagimin [1] wrote that Indonesian people are common with borrowing word or loanword. However, they do not aware of the words that they use are borrowing words. It is caused by several reasons and processes of the way that they use some of borrowing words. They borrow the foreign languages as Indonesian word such as the word laptop, data, model, internet, bank, modern, and agenda are from English.

Furthermore, borrowing words are sometimes found in a varietymediaincludes advertisement, newspaper, and etc. One of the famous one is found in advertisement. It is a public announcement that the function is to inform and persuade people to buy thing which is product, enjoy service or etc. Nowadays, some of Indonesian advertisements use borrowing word and those are interested to be discussed. One of them is an advertisement of a product named Gatsby Styling Pomade. In Gatsby Styling Pomade advertisement found that some of the words are using English borrowing word.

Then, here is the statement of the problem and the purpose for this study: Statement of the Problem. What types of borrowing word that found in Indonesian advertisement of Gatsby Styling Pomade?. The purpose of the Study. To find out the types of the borrowing words in advertisement of Gatsby Styling Pomade.


According to Jendra [2], borrowing is a component of sociolinguistics since it becomes a language phenomenon in a society. In addition, bilingual speakers usually borrow words from another language and they use it as a part of their language by switching and mixing the words. Holmes [3] also said that speakers also borrow words from other language to explain a concept or something which the words are do not understood or available in their language use. There are two ways in borrowing words that are complete borrowing (used in its original form such as spelling and pronunciation) and incomplete borrowing (the word changes in spelling, pronunciation, and affixation).


Loanword is also as borrowing word. It is the processes of forming and adding new words from another language. Haspelmath [4] explained that Loanword (or lexical borrowing) is illustrated as a word that entered its lexicon as an output of borrowing (by transfer or copying).


Loanword is the process of morphological importation that involves no morphological substitution without change in phoneme [5]. The word is expressed as the earlier and more familiar which is used by the receptor language in a community. For instance, the word “villa means vila”, “apartment means apartemen”, “data means data”, and “mall means mal.

Loan shift

Haugen [6] states that loan shift indicates to words that is formed by borrowing only the meaning which is found the foreign resources words. For example, in Indonesian and English which are borrowed from each other. The words “umpan balik” means “feedback”.


Sagimin [1] described that advertising is a kind of massage consciously used to promote products or services through all kinds of media to the target market. Moreover, the text in an advertisement will relate the products to a particular group. Thus, the language used in an advertisement has its own characteristic that is to attract customers to buy the products.


In this study, the researchers used qualitative method and it is used to analyze and identify the advertisement of Gatsby Styling Pomade from March 17th, 2017. According to Creswell [7] a case study are qualitative research approaches used to understand an issue or problem using case. This study aims to explore the phenomenon of information in case or subject. The case used in this study is the type of borrowing word used in Indonesian advertisement “Gatsby Styling Pomade”.

Qualitative method is used to verify questions which could be answered by describing how participants in a study notice and define several aspects of the environment [8]. The design of this study, researchers used descriptive qualitative which is researchers use onto word data and descriptive forms.

The data was obtained from observation on YouTube. Then, the data was processed in the form of transcripts. After that, the researchers conducted a data analysis on the words which spoken using English. In Gatsby Styling Pomade advertisement found that some of the words are using English borrowing word.


The advertisement video was uploaded by Iklan TV Indonesia channel in March 17th, 2017. It reaches 16.553 viewers by now. The transcript of Gatsby Styling Pomade advertisement is written below: “Cowok pomadic itu, cowok yang bergaya neo classic. Cowokpomadic, cowo yang fun, selalu tampil cool, dan yang pasti jadi trendsetter. Soal gaya rambut cowok pomadic pakai Gats by Styling Pomade. Gatsby Styling Pomade, buat cowok Pomadic.”

In the advertisement is found six Western words, especially using English words to make the advertisement seems more up-to- date, high quality, and international recognition. Those words are found in Gatsby Styling Pomade as Indonesian advertisement.

No. English Words Indonesia n Words Type of Borrowin g Words
1 Neoclassic Neo klasik Loanword
2 Fun Menyenan gkan Loan shift
3 Cool Keren Loan shift
4 Trendsetter Pembuat tren, trensetter Loanword
5 Pomade Pomade, minyak rambut Loanword
6 Pomadic Pengguna pomade Loan shift
Table 1.Gatsby Styling Pomade as Indonesian advertisement.

Based on the result of table above, the researchers found that some of them are use loanword and loan shift. Here are the specific explanations of each word that are borrowing words.


Word 1 “neo classic”

The word “neo classic” is a type of loanword because it is in Bahasa Indonesia only changing the consonant –c into/k/ and removing the double consonant –s into one /s/. Moreover, the word “neo classic” is a type of loanword because it has same meaning in English and Indonesian language but it only has differences in the morphemic structure.

Word 2 “trendsetter”

The word “trendsetter” is a type of loanword because it is only removing the consonant – d and it has same meaning both in English and Indonesian language.

Word 3 “pomade”

The word “pomade” in English and Indonesia has the same meaning and there is no changing consonant, vocal, and structure form. So, this word is as loanword because it has similarity in meaning and form with the original form.

The word “fun” is a type of loan shift because it borrows the word by translating the foreign borrowing language completely. For instance, the English word (fun), in Indonesian language translates as “menyenangkan”.

Word 2 “cool”

The word “cool” is a type of loan shift because it borrows the word by translating the foreign borrowing language completely. For instance, the English word (cool), in Indonesian language translates as “keren”.

Word 3 “pomadic”

The word “pomadic” is a type of loan shift because it borrows the word by translating into Indonesian language as “pengguna pomade”.


From this study, the researchers concluded that loanword is the morphological importation process that does not require a morphological replacement without a phoneme change. Otherwise, loan shift refers to words created by borrowing only the meaning found in foreign resource terms.

After analyzing the data, the researchers concluded that there are six of English borrowing words that are found in Indonesian advertisement of Gatsby Styling Pomade. There are found some kinds of borrowing word include loanwords and loan shift. Therefore, the most dominant type of borrowing word in this study are both loanwords and loan shifts. There are three words of each type of borrowing word.


The writers would like to thank to Allah SWT. The dean of FPIP UMSIDA, Dr. Akhtim Wahyuni, M.Ag, the chair of the English Education Department, Yuli Astutik, M. Pd, the English lecturer, Niko Ferdiyanto, M. A, and all other participants that are not mentioned here.


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