Articles
DOI: 10.21070/icecrs2021890

Short Film Animation As Media For Teaching Writing Descriptive Text


Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Indonesia
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Indonesia
Short Film Animation Teaching Writing Descriptive Text

Abstract

This research is to know the effects of the use of short film animation as media for teaching writing descriptive text for 7thgrade students at Junior High School. The method that used in this study was Quasi-Experimental, which are conducted an experimental class and control class. Based on the results of statistical calculations, the average score in the experimental class the pre-test value is lower than the post-test. Meanwhile, in the control class the average pre-test and post-test results were still as low. The t-test results showed that the tv value was higher than the table (3.80> 1,999) with 62 degrees of freedom and a significance level of 5%. That is, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. So, the use of animated short films gives effect in writing descriptive text.

Introduction

Many countries use English as a foreign language. So, English language needs to be mastered for both oral and written communication. writing requires creativity from the mindset of every writer. writing is the process of delivering a message to another peoples, therefore every writer needs to think about the intent and purpose of their writing. Besides that, they also need to pay attention to grammatical structures. There are several types of text in writing including descriptive, narrative, argumentative, and others. Besides that, students have difficulties to compile and combine sentences in descriptive text, the use of sentences context and structure of writing needs to be considered in writing a text. the role of teachers is to help increase students' motivation to write and compose writing without forcing students thought, because the teachers' job is as a facilitator.

Descriptive text is the text that contains images of an object and each person observes shape of object. If the writers want to make a good written of descriptive text before, they need the knowledge to support their writing skills. Then the students’ can interpret with their own sentences there are several types of media including text, audio, visual, manipulative videos (objects), and people. The role of technology has a big impact on learning, because, now students become sophisticated main users of technology. Film is a good media to support of the learning material there are some reasons why the film is good for teaching and learning. Film is good to make the students master their four skills in English such as reading, writing, speaking and listening, films also give them the visual context, which students can understand by interpreting the language, gestures from actors and others. Then, there is motivation in the story, besides the learning process also enjoyable for them

Before conducting the research, first the researcher did observation with one of English teacher in junior high school to know how difficulties of students’ writing, especially in writing descriptive text. The first is students have lack in grammar. Second, the students have low ability in vocabulary. Third, the students have less ability to memorize about possessive pronoun and adjective. Fourth, the students have low ability in writing the main idea. Fifth, the students have less ability in writing supporting idea. Sixth, the students have lack writing descriptive text. In this study, the researcher uses short film animation as a media for students in writing descriptive text, this media is an option that has a good effect to the solution of the problem. Besides that, the role of films also improved students’ writing, because many researchers have used this media in to learn a language in their research observation . According to this background, the research question is: is there any effect of teaching writing descriptive text by using short film animation at junior high school. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of teaching writing descriptive text by using short film animation at junior high school.

Method

This research is used quantitative method. quantitative data can be measured, because it is usually expressed in terms of numbers such as numbers or percentages or statistical tests and mathematical models. Therefore the data can be completed more accurately. There are several types of experimental design based on which are three of pre-experimental designs, three of true-experimental design, quasi experimental design, correlational and ex post facto designs. The researcher conducted the types of quasi experimental design which adopted two classes between experiment and control classes to collect the data. in the quasi experimental method, to overcome the problems experienced by students, it is necessary to have alternatives in learning. In addition, the class is divided into two classes, namely the experimental and the control class, this alternative is expected to provide changes in the experimental class which are treated in the learning process. Meanwhile, the control class was not given treatment. There are three kind of quasi-experimental design which are named nonequivalent (pre-test and post-test) control group design, single group interrupted time series design, and control group interrupted time series design. The researcher used nonequivalent (pre-test and post-test) control group design with the aims to find is there any effect or not by using short film animation in teaching writing descriptive text in junior high school. The researcher was conducted in four meetings for two weeks. The researcher follows the to describe the quasi-experimental design which can be illustrated below:

O1 X O3
O2 O4
Table 1. Research Design

Note:

O1 : Experimental group which is given the pre-test

O2: Experimental group which is given the post-test after given the treatment.

O3 : Control group which is given the pre-test.

O4 : Control group which is given the post-test without given the treatment.

X: Treatment

The population of this study is the whole of 7th grades students of SMPN 1 Candi. The school had ninth classes of each grades, there are 7A, 7B, 7C, 7D, 7E, 7F, 7G, 7H, 7I. The total number of the population was 287 students. The researcher used two classes as the sample of this research. The class was 7F for the experimental class and 7H for the control class, with consisted 32 students on both of class. The researcher used deliberate sampling to choose the classes. deliberate sampling or known as purposive sampling, in which this method of sampling is chosen based on certain criteria and condition. So, the researcher was chosen two classes between 7F and 7H as the sample of the population.

The researcher used data instrument to collect the data with pre-test and post-test, this test is used to measure the students writing descriptive text and students’ ability to understand the using of simple present tense. the test includes a form of measurement related to the knowledge, ability and result provided by someone. Besides test, to measure the students can using multiple choice, interviewing, writing paragraph and others. In this study, the researcher asked the students to write a paragraph of descriptive text. Before conducting the test, the researcher measures validity of the instrument. validity is used to measure the level of accuracy of an instrument. The researcher used the opinion from the experts’ judgment and was adapted from the students’ English handbook 2013 to measure validation of the data.

The researcher used several steps between give pre-test and post-test. The test that used in this research is a paragraph test, with the specific material of descriptive text about people. Pre-test that given by the researcher to the students is to know how far of students’ ability and understanding in writing descriptive text. Pre-test was given on both of these classes with the similar theme. The students given the instruction to write a paragraph descriptive text about family at least 100 word in 35 minutes. On the next meeting, in the experimental class the students were taught descriptive text related about people (main character) in short film animation. Then, the students were given treatment by using short film animation. Besides that, the control class was not given any treatment. After that, the researcher gave a post-test into both of classes with theme describes about friends. The scoring that used by the researcher is analytical method . The researcher using T-test is to know the effect by using short film animation in teaching writing descriptive text at junior high school. The formula of T-test as bellow:

Figure 1.The formula of T-test

After collecting the data, the researcher analyzed the data with the aims to find out whether there is an effect by using short film animation in teaching writing the descriptive text at junior high school. The researcher used measure t-test to find out the effect by using short film animation as the treatment in experimental class. The criteria are shown as follow: Ho (Hypothesis of Null is rejected if alpha level is lower than 0.05 (α< 0.05). Ho: There is no effect by using short film animation in teaching writing the descriptive text at junior high school. The criteria are Ha (Hypothesis of Alternative) is accepted if alpha level is higher than 0.05 (α> 0.05). Ha: There is an effect by using short film animation in teaching writing the descriptive text at junior high school.

Findings and Discussion

The researcher taught four meeting in experimental class and two meeting in control class. Both of this class was given same test from the researcher. On the first meeting from both of this class, the researcher gave the students worksheet which is pre-test. Then, the students write a descriptive text with theme to describe of the people. The instruction of pre-test was the students had written a descriptive text between visual and characteristics with the topic one of family members. The students write minimum 100 words within 35 minutes. After giving pre-test, on the second meeting the researcher taught by using short film animation as the treatment in the experimental class. The students were gave the treatment twice with the purpose to make them more understand how to describe about people about visual and characteristics between boy and girl. Then, the students can arrange a paragraph of descriptive text using simple present tense. The first treatment was a short film animation with theme to describe a main character (a girl) about visual and characteristics. Before played the film, the researcher given treatment worksheet and explain about the instruction. After that, the researcher played a short film animation with the title of “one small step”. Then, every student can analyze and interpret with their own opinion about the visual and characteristics of the main characters. After played the film, the researcher taught the students how to make a descriptive text about people (a girl) on step by step in every sentence. After the researcher taught the material about descriptive text step by step, the students make an outline on the paper of students’ treatment worksheet that given to the researcher, and then they write become a paragraph. The third meeting, the researcher gave short film animation with the title of “Embarked”, theme of this film was about people (a boy). After that, the students write an outline become a paragraph of descriptive text related characteristics and visual of the main character based on this film animation. In the last meeting the researcher gave the post-test to all of the students between experiment and control class. Then, students were written descriptive text with the topic to describe about visual and characteristics of their friends in the classroom, with the instruction minimum 100 words within 35 minutes.

Student Experiment Class Student Control Class
Pre-Test Post-Test Pre-Test Post-Test
∑32 1771 2718 ∑32 1812 1845
X 55.34 84.93 X 56.62 57.65
Table 2. The Result of Experimental Class and Control Class

After collected student’s pre-test, treatment, post-test in experimental class, and pretest, post-test in control class, the researcher knows the result of the score and mean between two classes. From the result score, the total score of the pre-test from the experimental class is 1771 with a mean of 55.34 and the total score of the post-test is 2718 with a mean of 84.93. The score of the post-test is higher than the pre-test. It can be seen that the experiment class have increased score.Then, the total results of the pre-test scores of students from the control class are 1812, with a mean of 56.62 and the total score of the post-test is 1845, with a mean of 57.65, the post-test score does not increase significantly.

Figure 2. Gain Score of Experimental and Control Class

The statistical computation using two sample T-test showed that there is an effect between students who taught by using short film animation to write a descriptive text. Based on the calculation of the T-test bellow, the result of the T-test is 3.80 and the score of the test is 62 at the significant level of 5% is 1.999. Comparison of the T-table T-test, the results of this study show that T-test (t.test = 3.80) is higher than T-table (t.table 5% = 1.999) or 3.80> 1.999.

t table 1.999
t test 3.80
Table 3. Table Result of T-test

The finding of this research showed that short film animation as media have an effect in improved the score of students’ writing descriptive text. It is clear that the average result of the mean pre-test score between class 7F as the experimental class is 55.34 and class 7H as the control class is 56.62 then, the increase in score between the two classes also has an effect for the post-test which is 84.93 for experiment class and 57.65 for control class. This indicates that short film animation as a media is an effective way that can help students to improve their writing, their motivation to learn and write specifically in descriptive text. Then, easier to understand because using short film animation media is more exciting and fun. In addition to students learning to write they are also entertained by this media. In addition, the researcher uses a t-test to analyze the effect of using short film animation as media in teaching writing a descriptive text. It was a comparison between t-table and t-test which used the degree of significance of 5% (0.05) is 1.999 and degree of freedom (df) is 62 The computation of t-test statistical shows that t-test is 3.80 higher than t-table 1.999 it means that hypothesis alternative (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.

Short film animation is an effective ways to make students’ enjoy the learning process in the classroom. Besides fun, learning English by using short film animation can make students’ interest also easily understand to the material. Then, the students accept moral value and motivation based on this short film animation. video animation is given to students not to replace traditional teaching tools, but as a media to improve students' abilities as a complement to learning. In addition, students who were given animation video media got a good score.

So, by applied short film animation, students can improve their writing ability. The students’ score between experiment and control class were different, the result score of the students’ in experiment class was higher than control class. It can be said that short film animation give an effect to teaching writing descriptive text. Finally, it can be concluded that was an effect by using short film animation to teaching writing descriptive text at SMPN 1 Candi-Sidoarjo.

Conclusion

According to teaching learning process at 7F & 7H, it can be seen that students’ ability of writing descriptive text about people increased in the experimental class. The result of pre-test both of this class was low, but for the post-test in experimental was higher than post-test in control class. Thus, by applied short film animation as media give an effect of students’ writing descriptive text. The researcher found that there were some students did not know how to using simple present tense and writing descriptive text into a paragraph. After teaching writing descriptive text using short film animation, the students got better result to teaching learning process especially in experimental class. The researcher suggests to the teacher to using some media such as short film animation in teaching writing for descriptive text or another material.

Acknowledgment

The researcher would like to say a lot of thanks to the researcher’ thesis advisor, English teacher in the school at junior high school and all of the students in 7F & 7H who was helped as the participants to conducting this study. Because, without helped and support of researcher’ thesis advisor this study cannot be finish as soon as possible. Then the English teacher and the students also helped lots with their cooperative and their understanding during teaching learning. Besides that, a lot of thanks to the researcher’s family, and for all my friends who helped, always stay away and support the researcher to finish what has been started. Moreover, the researcher also would like to thank you for the service of Library at Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo because has given facilitates that support the researcher in working this study.

References