DOI: 10.21070/icecrs2021891

GIST Strategy Effect on Reading Descriptive Text

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
GIST Strategy Reading Comprehension Descriptive Text


The purpose of this study to find out whether there is a significant effect of GIST strategy to teach reading comprehension in descriptive text of seven grade students. This study uses quantitative method. The study usedtrue experimental which took two classes randomly, VII I as experimental class and VII H as control class. The instrument used a test. The result showed from a mean of the pretest in experimental class is 75.13 and posttest is 86.94. The researchers used the ttest formula to calculate the results of the data and hypothesis. The result of tvalue is higher than a ttable,ttest is 3.415 higher than ttable 1.994 with degree freedom 70 and level significance 5%. It means that the Ha is accepted and H0is rejected. The concluded there is a significant effect of GIST strategy to teach reading comprehension of seven grade students at SMPN 4 Sidoarjo.


In this era of globalization, people are required to master the international language. They realize and know that English is an international language. English has a role as a means of communication, both oral and written. Therefore, English is taught to young students at an early age in Indonesia and throughout the world. English has been taught to young students in pre-school to university. In learning English there are four kinds of skills including listening, speaking, reading and writing. At all levels of education in Indonesia, the satisfaction of four English language learning skills still has many difficulties, especially in understanding reading comprehension. In junior high school, a student learns five kinds of texts in learning English as their materials[1]. There are narrative text, descriptive text, procedure text, recount text and report text. Reading is easily defined as the process by which a person receives and interprets messages from printed material[2]. So, reading comprehension is one of the important tools for human life because of reading readers can get useful information.

Based on the preliminary research study in SMPN 4 Sidoarjo and observation in February 25th, 2019, the researcher found some symptoms such as students’ are difficult understanding the main ideas of a reading text. Some of students are not able to get information from the text, so the students cannot conclude reading the text correctly. The researcher often finds, the teacher gives a text for students to read, they show their laziness and sleepiness. The teacher also does not give a list of difficult words to the students; the teacher informs when students asked about it.

In order to solve the problems mentioned above, the researcher proposes GIST (Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text) as an alternative strategy for teaching reading comprehension in descriptive text. It is believed that GIST strategy helps teachers and students to synthesize information, higher level still thinking which includes analyzing information and identifying key concept. This is the process when students activate schemata in the text; they build new insights from their background knowledge to understand the text. Moreover, GIST is effective for teaching in reading comprehension. It also has a positive impact on students’ descriptive text. From the rationale above, the researcher wants to know the significant effect of GIST strategy on students reading comprehension in descriptive text in seventh grade at SMPN 4 Sidoarjo.

Reading Comprehension

Reading is one of language learning. Everyone must have read. Students do not always read something from the kinds of books that are in school. Like textbooks, or other assignment books. But students can also read others, such as magazines, newspapers, or comic. By reading, students will get a lot of information from various things. Reading is likewise a skill that teachers simply expect learners to acquire[3]. According to the statement above, reading is language skill that must be given by the teacher to the students to learn English as a foreign language. Based on the theories above, it can be concluded that reading involves the reader, the text, and the interaction between reader and text. Reading is a skill that teachers can expect to learn from students. Reading interest can be classified as eagerness, good emotion and response.

Based on reality, reading cannot be separated from understanding because the purpose or result of reading activities is to understand what has been read. Reading comprehension is the process of constructing meaning by coordinating a number of complex processes that include word reading, word, and world knowledge, and fluency[4]. In reading, learning process, it is indeed that student not only read a text to increase their reading skill, but also do several activities to develop critical reading ability. GIST is one of a way to develop critical reading and GIST, including activities in the form of summaries and outlines. This is similar, but not exactly the same, summarizing. This is because summarizes finding the most important ideas and incorporating them into short statements, but GIST has a systematic understanding check through a list the main ideas by generating text through 5WH questions to understanding the text. In another word, GIST Strategy is not an evaluative filter, but it is monitoring comprehension in small chunks of text.

Teaching is an activity in which a teacher guides facilities learning, give a chance for the learning and sets the condition for learning[5]. A teacher needs a guide a strategy for the learning process. Then the teacher tries to make a motivation for their students in learning process maybe they give a treatment to learn the students.From the explanation above, the teacher should give the media, although the technique to improve students reading comprehension. Then can make their students to enjoy and understand about the learning process.

GIST Strategy

GIST is a strategy for supporting comprehension of informational text[6]. Both of them recognize GIST Strategy at the first time is acquainted by Cunningham. Besides, they add that GIST Strategy is very helpful when students are asked to read long texts that contain large amount of new information. They explain clearly that on GIST strategy implementation, students work in cooperative groups and read sections of the text silently. Generating Instructions between Schemata and Text is the effective summarizing leads to an increase in student learning[7]. Summarizing requires students to focus on the main ideas of a text and to decide what is important without omitting key ideas. This strategy can help the teacher improve creativity in higher thinking, and can help the students summarizing the information from the text.

On the other hand, Generating Instruction between Schemata and Text is strategy to identify the important vocabulary and synthesize important pieces of information into a summary statement to show the gist of the reading[8]. From the explanation above, this strategy shows students how to distinguish between important and less important information. Based on NBSS, to get the GIST, readers must do these four steps: 1) Previewing the text by looking at headings, subheading, pictures, etc; 2) Readers must read the selection carefully; 3) Readers also should highlight with who, what, when, where, why, and how of the text as the main idea; 4) The last step is by writing a 20 words “GIST” summary using the information, in this section is the best way to dig student critical thinking or comprehension about text through the answer sheet.

In this study, the researchers used GIST strategy based on Cunningham in National Behavior Support Service, because the researchers want to be a focus on individual work, not group work. There are some kinds of charts which explained by the National Behavior Support Service, but the researchers used the second chart. It can be seen: Based on the chart below, the researcher decide to use the second chart, because it will be easier to gather and develop the key ideas of the text by using what, who,when, why, where and how.

Descriptive Text

Descriptive text is a text that explains or describes an object that includes animals, places, and things. In the descriptive text, there are some things that should be mentioned the character in what will we describe, characteristics and color of the object. We can understand anything about an object from the descriptive text. So descriptive text, it is very important. On the other hand, descriptive text is a text that says what a person or thing. The aim is to describe and express certain people, places and thing. The social function of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place, or thing. Its social function is to describe a particular person, person, or things[9]. Descriptive text is characterized by the steps of rhetorical development which presents an identification and description. It identifies a person, place, or thing and also describes parts, qualities, and characteristics. There are three kinds of descriptive text, such as descriptive of person, descriptive of things and descriptive of place. In this study, the researcher use three kinds of descriptive text to give a treatment in reading comprehension.


In this study, the research used quantitative method. That concern on an experimental approach. The researcher used true experimental research. True experimental is divided into two classes, the first is experimental class and get a treatment, the second is the control class and do not get a treatment[10]. In addition, the researcher used a true experimental design to find out students’ reading comprehension that is taught by using GIST strategy and to know the significant effect of GIST strategy on students reading comprehension in descriptive text in seven grades of SMPN 4 Sidoarjo. Before the researchers gave treatment at the experimental class, the researcher had to give a pre-test to find out how the students’ reading comprehension. Pre-test were also given in control class, with the same purpose which is to find out students’ reading comprehension. After the two target participants received a pretest, the researcher provided treatment in the experimental class through the implementation of GIST strategy. Then the last step the researcher gave a post-test to assess students’ reading comprehension by using the GIST strategy. The population in this study is seventh grade students in SMPN 4 Sidoarjo in academic year 2018/2019. The sample of this study, the researcher takes two classes there are class VII H as the control class and class VII I as experimental class, which was taught the GIST strategy. The researchers used purposive sampling to retrieve data as recommended from the English language teacher of SMPN 4 Sidoarjo to take just two classes.

Test is used in this study as the instrument. There are tryout, pretest, and posttest. The researchers choose IX B class to get a tryout. The question till consists 40 questions in the form of multiple choices. the result of tryout was analyzed to find out the validity and reliability of the instrument. The researchers made the pretest and posttest, which consist 20 question test of multiple choices. The result of pretest, it is to know the original competence of students in the descriptive text before getting a treatment by GIST strategy. The result of posttest was to knowing any effect or not after teaching and learning using the GIST strategy in reading comprehension. T-test is used to answer statements of theproblem.

Result and Discussion

This study was aimed to investigate the significant effect on the students’ comprehension in reading descriptive text. Those were taught by using GIST strategy. In this study, there were five kinds of activities. Those were observations, tryout, pretest, treatment, and posttest. The activities had done at sixth meetings because the time limitation which is given by the English teacher. The researchers had given a pre-test before getting the treatment. Then, the researchers analyzed the scores of the students, which had done from the pre-test. After that, the researchers had given treatment for experimental class. The experimental class in this study was VII I got GIST strategy, but VII H as the control class did not get the GIST strategy. After the students had treatment, the researchers gave the post-test to know the differences between before and after having a treatment. The data is support the researchers to get the real data.

From the result the table of pretest and posttest data that the researchers had collected that the mean value of pretest is 75.13 and posttest is 86.94 from experimental class. So, from the table data can be concluded that the posttest is higher than pretest because the students, especially experimental class got the treatment and studied the material already. After the collected the data of pretest and posttest, the researcher would like to show the result of the hypothesis with the statement of problem “is there any significant effect of GIST strategy on student reading comprehension in the descriptive text of seven grade at SMPN 4 Sidoarjo.”

After counting the data used t-test formula, then the researchers conclude that there is a significant effect by using GIST strategy of seven grade students at SMPN 4 Sidoarjo. Based on the significance was 5% and degree of freedom (Df) was 70, there were t-table is 1.994 with t-test is 3.415. It indicates that t-test is 3.415 higher than t-table 1.994. So, Ha (alternative hypothesis) was accepted and H0 (null hypothesis) was rejected. Thus, it can be concluded that the result of this study is a significant effect of GIST strategy in teaching reading comprehension in descriptive text of seven grade students at SMPN 4 Sidoarjo. It shows that GIST strategy is an effective way to help the students to raise their reading comprehension, their motivation in learning reading, then to be easy to understand a content of about the text.


Based on the statistic data and the research hypothesis is this study, it indicates that there are significant effects of GIST strategy in teaching reading comprehension in descriptive text of seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 4 Sidoarjo. It indicates a high level of significant effect. The detail can be seen from some calculation such as the mean value of posttest in experimental is 86.94 and posttest in control class is 77.91. These data indicate that the score of the experimental class (VII I) is higher than the control class (VII H). Based on the significance of 5% (0.05) is 1.994 and the degrees of freedom (Df) is 70. The computation of t-test statistical indicates that ttest is 3.415 higher than ttable 1.994. It means that hypothesis alternative (Ha) accepted and null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. It was there is a significant effect of GIST strategy in teaching reading comprehension in descriptive text of seventh grade students at SMP Negeri 4 Sidoarjo.


The researcher would like to thank SMPN 4 Sidoarjo for supporting the study. The researcher also gives big thank to the Mrs. Ermawati Zulikhatin Nuroh, M.Pd as the advisor who guide, lead, and giving suggestion to the researcher to make this study.


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