DOI: 10.21070/icecrs2021892

Storyboard: How Is The Effect For EFL Learners In Writing Skiil?

Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
Recount Text Storyboard Writing


This research aims to know the students’ ability in writing recount text of the eighth grade students’ of SMP Ulul Albab Islamic Full Day School in the academic year of 2018/2019 through storyboard technique. The study used quantitative pre-experimental design. The subjects of the research were 25 students of VIII-C of SMP Ulul Albab Islamic Full Day School. The data were gained through pre-test and post-test. The result of the students’ scoring pre-test and post-test showed that storyboard technique develops the students’ writing ability in writing recount text. It can be seen from the mean score in pre-test were 70.56 and the post-test score were 82.72. The data were analysed by using t-test. The result of calculation showed that in the significance degree of level 5%, the value of t-count is higher than t-table (15.01 > 1.71). It means that there is effect of using storyboard technique in students’ writing ability especially writing recount text. In addition, the use of storyboard technique was able to improve the students’ achievement in writing


As an international language and second language of many countries, English has an important role in this globalization era. According to [1] disclose that language is the most complete and effective way to express ideas, messages, feelings and opinions to others. Therefore, it is important for the learners and everyone around the world to be able to learn English to communicate in international communication. The purposes of teaching English is developing the communicate of ability involves in four skills. One of the four basics of language skills is writing skill. It is very important to learn. According to [2], writing skill is complex and difficult to mastering. It is not only of grammatical but also conceptual and assessment elements. This research mainly focused on writing skill because writing has always been seen as an important skill in English language. According to [3], when students want to write something, the students need the steps in writing or usually called the writing process. This importance is due to the writing it is not easy. They must pay attention to the vocabulary, grammar, generic structure, and grammatical order.

Based on an interview with the English teacher of SMP Ulul Albab Islamic Full Day, the researcher found that students’ writing skill was low. There are many of students faced the difficulties in writing skill. There are some factors that caused students failed in writing skill, those are: (1) The students have difficulty expressing their ideas. (2) The students have limited vocabulary. (4) The lack of English grammar mastery. (5) The teacher does not use interesting media or technique in teaching writing. Based on the background of the study above, the researcher is providing an appropriate technique of teaching. One of the techniques that can be used is storyboard. So, the researcher used it in teaching writing recount text. It is because recount text retelling the events that happened in the past, what event happened and when it happened. Storyboard technique will make the student easier to remember the events that they experienced in the past. So, it will help generating ideas to write a recount text. The researcher is interesting in finding the answer of the following question: Is there any effect of using storyboard to the students’ writing achievement?”

Review of Literature


Storyboard is useful in helping students to retell experiences or understand something such as place, object, people, etc. Storyboard is technique that perhaps can help the students in writing recount text.[4], stated that storyboard is a picture story that describe a story in picture. There are two kinds of photos which can be made storyboard that are used in teaching and learning process, [2], they are: the original picture and the picture of illustration. It means that storyboard is used as technique in teaching writing, especially as technique in recount text. Within this study, the storyboard that used is the photos by their experience arranged became storyboard and based on the generic structure of recount text.


Writing is language skills in learning English. Writing is a skill to express feeling, thinking, ideas or events in written form that can be the tool to communicate with the other people. According to [5]writing allows us to communicate at a distance, either a place or a distance time. Besides, [5] learning to write is a developmental process to communicate meaningfully through writing. According to [3], when students want to write, these students need the steps in writing or usually called the writing process. The writing process usually involves (1) planning what we are going to write, (2) drafting, (3) reviewing and (4) editing what we have written and then producing a final. It means that, before writing we must think of ideas, what we want to write. So, writing also has a process as previously explained.

Recount Text

[6], said that recount text is a text that retells past events, usually in the order in which they occurred. In addition, [7], stated recount text is the text telling the reader what happened in the past. It begins by telling the reader who was the character, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened. In this study the researcher used personal recount of the type of the recount text. According to [8], stated that personal recount: the personal recount means to retell or share experience of activities that the writer has been personally involved in.


In this study, the researcher used quantitative approach, pre-experimental research design to conduct the data. According to [9] the quantitative research is a way to test the objective of a theory by examining the relationship between several of variables. The researcher used pre-experimental design which took only one class in the research design. The researcher also used purposive sampling to conduct the data. The sample in this study is the students of VIII-C grade at SMP Ulul Albab Islamic Full Day School. There are 25 students in each class from 100 students’ populations.

Instrument is a tool that used by the researcher at the time of collection the data. According to [10], instrument is a tool used to measure the natural phenomena and social observed. Based the explanation, to obtain the data students achievement, the researcher used a test as instrument. Based on this study, the research instruments are pre-test and post-test. First meeting, the researcher gave pre-test to the students. The researcher did not explain about recount text and asked students to fill the test or tell past events without storyboard. After the researcher giving treatment, the researcher gave exercise and storyboard to the students. In pre-test, the researcher only gave one instruction to make recount text or sharing experience. In post-test, the researcher gave worksheet and asked the students to make recount text based on their experiences and showed the generic structure. The researcher used T-test in analysing the data because it was appropriate with this research problem which find out the effect on students’ writing achievements.

Research Finding a nd Discussion

In this chapter, the researcher explains about the research analysis of experimental study that had been done in SMP Ulul Albab Islamic Full Day School. The researcher has conducted the research from 8th April 2019 until 11st April 2019. There were three activities to conduct this research, those were: pre-test, treatment and post-test. Those activities were done in two meetings.

The result of this research was got from pre-test and post-test that had been already held in VIII-C class. The results of pre-test and post-test can be seen as follows:

The Result of Pre-test and Post-test

Pre-test Post-test
Total 1764 Total 2068
Mean 70.56 Mean 82.72
Minimum Score 68 Minimum Score 76
Maximum Score 76 Maximum Score 92
Table 1. The Result of Pre-test and Post-test

So, the data in the tables above, it showed that the students’ achievement in writing recount text by using storyboard is higher than the students not taught by using storyboard technique. The researcher used T-test formula by [11], the computation formula of T-test is as follows:

Figure 1.The Computation Formula of T-test

Calculating of T-test

Calculating Standard Deviation (SD)

Figure 2.Calculating Standard Deviation (SD)

Finding mean of difference (MD)

Figure 3.Finding mean of difference (MD)

Calculating the students’ error of the mean difference (SEMD) between variables X and Y

Figure 4.Calculating the students’ error of the mean difference (SEMD) between variables X and Y

Calculating To score

Figure 5.Calculating To score

Determining t table in significant level 5% with df

Figure 6.Determining t table in significant level 5% with df

Calculating Eta - Squaredta Squared

Figure 7.Calculating Eta - Squared

Criterion of how significant effect Description
0.01 ≤ eta squared < 0.06 Low effect
0.06 ≤ eta squared < 0.14 Intermediate effect
Eta squared ≥ 0.14 High effect
Table 2.The Table of Eta Squared

The researcher conclude that the interpretation of value eta squared test is high level because the eta squared in this thesis 0.90 >0.14.

Students Pre-test Post-test D Md D^2
25 1764 2068 304 12.16 4096
T count 15.01
T table 1.71
Table 3. The Result of Hypothesis Testing

From data of increasing students in pre-test and post-test score, it concluded the students get better achievement in writing recount text after taught by storyboard technique. It is proven by this research that teaching writing recount text using storyboard, there is better achievement of students’ score. It can be seed from average pre-test score is 70.56 and post-test score is 82.72. Based on the analysis of the result hypothesis testing in the table 4.2.3, it is concluded that using storyboard is an effective way in teaching writing recount text. Storyboard as a technique in teaching writing recount text can be an alternative solution to solve the students’ difficulty in writing. It is proven by post-test score than higher than pre-test score. It can be concluded that the storyboard technique in teaching writing recount text is give better achievement. Furthermore, [2] mention that photo is one of the source of pictures that can be used for language learning. Photos arranged with storyboard technique is important in helping students to retell experiences in the past. Storyboard make the students understand easily in making sentences. It is also the effective technique to improve students writing ability.


The use of storyboard technique can improve the students writing skill recount text. After the use of storyboard, the students writing skill becomes better, especially in writing recount text. Based on the result data, it concluded that the result of T-test to test hypothesis of this research is effective using storyboard in teaching writing recount text. The result showed that in significance degree of 5%, t count> t table = 15.01 > 1.71. It can be concluded that t count was higher than t table, so alternative hypothesis (Ha) was accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected. So, it can be concluded there was an effect using storyboard in teaching writing recount text.


All praise and gratitude belong to the Almighty Allah SWT for grace and guidance so that this research finally can be accomplished. My beloved parents, my friends, and my amazing lecturer.